1. Language, Length and Format
- The manuscripts should be written in either Japanese or English.
- The length of the manuscripts should be between 12,000 and 20,000 characters in Japanese. (This amounts to 30-50 pages with 400 characters per page. Manuscripts in English should be roughly equal in length. )
- Vertical writing should be avoided. Authors’ names and institutional affiliations should appear at the end of the manuscript. Author names should be written in Hiragana.
- Only electronic copies of manuscripts are accepted. No handwritten manuscripts are accepted. Authors are advised to use a word processor such as MS Word.
- Authors are fully responsible for all copyright issues concerning their manuscripts.
2. Abstract and Key Words
- Abstract language: English (an abstract is on the first page of each manuscript)
- Abstract length: 200 words
- Key words: 5 key words in both Japanese and English for higher accessibility
3.1. General Instructions
- Include page numbers.
- Include a word count at the end of the manuscript.
- Use dominical years, although authors may add Japanese era names in parenthesis ( ).
- Use these fonts: Shinjitai (new type Chinese characters in Japanese) and old Japanese syllabary characters). Proper nouns should also be in Shinjitai. Fonts for quoted poems may be chosen at the authors’ discretion.
- Use Arabic numerals (e.g. 2014).
- Write chapter numbers in Arabic numerals. Do not add dots. (e.g. 1 Introduction)
- Italicize the titles of books published in English.
- Use 「、」 and 「。」 for commas and periods for Japanese.
- Use two hyphens for each dash, with no space before and after the dash.
- Indent the first line of each paragraph by one character.
- Indent quotations by 2 characters from the left; no indentation on the right.
- Use 「 」 (for English, use “ ”)as quotation marks. Each long quotation should be placed as a separate indented paragraph with an empty line before and after the surrounding text.
- Omit the period in the final sentence of each quotation. (e.g. 「――――」と述べている。)
- Omissions are to be marked as follows: 「Texts（略）Texts」.
- Author’s complements to quotations must be in［ ］.
- To add Hiragana and/or Katakana, place the characters in（ ）as follows: 卓球
- To cite typos as they are, or without correction, use the following format: 棹球
3.3. Footnotes and References
- Footnotes should appear at the bottom of each page.
- References in the footnotes must be in the following format: .
- Books：Author’s name 『Book Title』 (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), Page Number(s)
- Author’s name 「Article Title」（『Book Title』 Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication ）Page Number
- Journals：Author’s Name 「Article Title」（『Journal Title』 Issue Number，Month and Year of Publication）
- Newspapers：「Article Title」 『Newspaper Title』（Year. Month. Day, Morning/Evening Issue）
- The titles of articles referred to should be in the following format: 「主題――副題――」
- Do not use 「、」 or 「。」 in references, even for Japanese literature. Instead use 「，」 and 「．」.
- When referring to newspapers published in English, use the following format:(New York Times, 25 Mar. 1995)
- When referring to translations, state the name of the author(s) of the cited works in the original language.
- Internet-based sources must also be properly cited and included in the bibliography. The format is as follow: 「Author’s Name（Institution．Date of Publication．Document Title．Publishing Agency．Date Accessed＜address＞．」. In cases where a URL is too long, it may be divided into two or more lines at a slash.
3.4. Use of Parentheses
- Put article titles in 「 」.
- Put journal and newspaper titles in 『 』.
- Use 〔〕 for parentheses within another pair of parenthesis（ ）.
- Do not use parentheses for figure numbers 図1
- Use horizontal writing for the caption of each figure. Numerals should be written with a narrow character and Arabic.
- The reference format for books:
- The reference format for journals:
- Sources written in a non-Roman script should be complemented with a Romanized transliteration.
- Roman alphabet sources should be cited using this format:
- Arrange works in the following order: Japanese literature, English literature, Chinese or Korean literature, and literature in other languages. In each group, the works should be arranged in the alphabetical order of authorship.
- Left-align each entry.
- Do not use 「、」 and 「。」 even for Japanese literature; use instead 「，」 and 「．」
5. Additional Hard Copies
Each author will be presented with two hard copies of the issue in which his/her article is published. Additional copies will be printed upon the author’s request, and authors will thereby be charged for the extra costs.