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Instructions for Authors > For Authors and Reviewers > Instructions for Authors

1. Language, Length and Format
2. Abstract and Key Words
3. Format
   3.1. General Instructions
   3.2. Quotations
   3.3. Footnotes and References
   3.4. Use of Parentheses
   3.5. Figures
4. Bibliography
5. Additional Hard Copies

1. Language, Length and Format

  • The manuscripts should be written in either Japanese or English.
  • The length of the manuscripts should be between 12,000 and 20,000 characters in Japanese. (This amounts to 30-50 pages with 400 characters per page. Manuscripts in English should be roughly equal in length. )
  • Vertical writing should be avoided. Authors’ names and institutional affiliations should appear at the end of the manuscript. Author names should be written in Hiragana.
  • Only electronic copies of manuscripts are accepted. No handwritten manuscripts are accepted. Authors are advised to use a word processor such as MS Word.
  • Authors are fully responsible for all copyright issues concerning their manuscripts.

2. Abstract and Key Words

  • Abstract language: English (an abstract is on the first page of each manuscript)
  • Abstract length: 200 words
  • Key words: 5 key words in both Japanese and English for higher accessibility

3. Format

  • 3.1. General Instructions

    • Include page numbers.
    • Include a word count at the end of the manuscript.
    • Use dominical years, although authors may add Japanese era names in parenthesis ( ).
    • Use these fonts: Shinjitai (new type Chinese characters in Japanese) and old Japanese syllabary characters). Proper nouns should also be in Shinjitai. Fonts for quoted poems may be chosen at the authors’ discretion.
    • Use Arabic numerals (e.g. 2014).
    • Write chapter numbers in Arabic numerals. Do not add dots. (e.g. 1 Introduction)
    • Italicize the titles of books published in English.
    • Use 「、」 and 「。」 for commas and periods for Japanese.
    • Use two hyphens for each dash, with no space before and after the dash.
    • Indent the first line of each paragraph by one character.
  • 3.2. Quotations

    • Indent quotations by 2 characters from the left; no indentation on the right.
    • Use 「 」 (for English, use “ ”)as quotation marks. Each long quotation should be placed as a separate indented paragraph with an empty line before and after the surrounding text.
    • Omit the period in the final sentence of each quotation. (e.g. 「――――」と述べている。)
    • Omissions are to be marked as follows: 「Texts(略)Texts」.
    • Author’s complements to quotations must be in[ ].
    • To add Hiragana and/or Katakana, place the characters in( )as follows: 卓球(ピンポン)
    • To cite typos as they are, or without correction, use the following format: (ママ)
  • 3.3. Footnotes and References

    • Footnotes should appear at the bottom of each page.
    • References in the footnotes must be in the following format: .
    • Books:Author’s name 『Book Title』 (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), Page Number(s)
    • Author’s name 「Article Title」(『Book Title』 Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication )Page Number
    • Journals:Author’s Name 「Article Title」(『Journal Title』 Issue Number,Month and Year of Publication)
    • Newspapers:「Article Title」 『Newspaper Title』(Year. Month. Day, Morning/Evening Issue)
    • The titles of articles referred to should be in the following format: 「主題――副題――」
    • Do not use 「、」 or 「。」 in references, even for Japanese literature. Instead use 「,」 and 「.」.
    • When referring to newspapers published in English, use the following format:(New York Times, 25 Mar. 1995)
    • When referring to translations, state the name of the author(s) of the cited works in the original language.
    • Internet-based sources must also be properly cited and included in the bibliography. The format is as follow: 「Author’s Name(Institution.Date of Publication.Document Title.Publishing Agency.Date Accessed<address>.」. In cases where a URL is too long, it may be divided into two or more lines at a slash.
  • 3.4. Use of Parentheses

    • Put article titles in 「 」.
    • Put journal and newspaper titles in 『 』.
    • Use 〔〕 for parentheses within another pair of parenthesis( ).
  • 3.5. Figures

    • Do not use parentheses for figure numbers 図1
    • Use horizontal writing for the caption of each figure. Numerals should be written with a narrow character and Arabic.

4. Bibliography

  • The reference format for books:
  • The reference format for journals:
  • Sources written in a non-Roman script should be complemented with a Romanized transliteration.
  • Roman alphabet sources should be cited using this format:
  • Arrange works in the following order: Japanese literature, English literature, Chinese or Korean literature, and literature in other languages. In each group, the works should be arranged in the alphabetical order of authorship.
  • Left-align each entry.
  • Do not use 「、」 and 「。」 even for Japanese literature; use instead 「,」 and 「.」

5. Additional Hard Copies

Each author will be presented with two hard copies of the issue in which his/her article is published. Additional copies will be printed upon the author’s request, and authors will thereby be charged for the extra costs.

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